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Introduction to Polyclonal Antibody Growth Factors

by Victor

Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies produced by several B cell lineages throughout the body (whereas monoclonal antibodies come from a single cell lineage). They’re a group of immunoglobulin molecules that react to the same antigen but recognize various epitopes.

 A growth factor is a naturally occurring chemical that promotes cell proliferation, wound healing, and cellular differentiation in some cases. It’s usually a steroid hormone or a released protein. Growth factors play a crucial role in a wide range of cellular activities.

Types of Growth Factor;  VEGF, EGFR, and ERBB2

What is VEGF? 

Many cells generate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), formerly known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), which stimulates the creation of blood vessels. VEGF is a growth factor that belongs to the platelet-derived growth factor family of cystine-knot growth factors. They are key signaling proteins involved in both vasculogenesis (the formation of the embryonic circulatory system from scratch) and angiogenesis (the formation of blood vessels from scratch) (the growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature).

VEGF’s typical function is to create new blood vessels during embryonic development, after damage, in muscle after exercise, and to circumvent blocked vessels (collateral circulation). It has the potential to cause sickness. Solid malignancies can only grow to a certain size without a sufficient blood supply; cancers that can express VEGF can grow and spread.

About VEGF antibody

There are more than 3300 VEGF antibodies in the market today with over 60 suppliers and manufacturers. This antibody reacts with native and denatured human and mouse VEGF. The immunogen is Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 165A, but this has high homology with multiple VEGF isoforms. 

What is EGFR?

The EGFR gene codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor, a receptor protein that spans the cell membrane with one end inside the cell and the other projecting from the cell’s outer surface. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands. 

When EGFR is activated by its growth factor ligands, it changes from an inactive monomer to an active homodimer.  while there is some evidence that inactive dimers may exist prior to ligand interaction.  In addition to creating homodimers following ligand binding, EGFR can form an active heterodimer with another ErbB receptor family member, such as ErbB2/Her2/neu.

About  EGFR Antibody

There are over 4300 EGFR Antibodies available in the market in 2022 from over 50 suppliers and manufacturers. EGF Receptor Antibody detects endogenous levels of total EGF receptor protein. The antibody does not cross-react with other proteins of the ErbB family.  EGFR antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Tyr1068 of human EGF receptors. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography. 

Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, and Flow Cytometry are only a few of the scientific applications for EGFR antibody. In human, mouse, rat, canine, and non-human primate tissues, these antibodies target EGFR. Rabbit, Mouse, and Rat monoclonal, polyclonal, recombinant monoclonal, and recombinant polyclonal antibodies to EGFR have been produced. To validate specificity to EGFR, these antibodies were tested using Cell treatment, Knockout, Independent antibody, IP-MS, Knockdown, Relative expression, and Peptide array.

What is ERBB2?

Four plasma membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases make up the ErbB family. The other members include epidermal growth factor receptor, erbB-3 (neuregulin-binding; lacks kinase domain), and erbB-4 (neuregulin-binding; lacks kinase domain). All four have an external ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain that can interact with a wide range of signaling molecules and can function both ligand-dependent and ligand-independently. Notably, no HER2 ligands have yet been discovered.

ErbB2 heterodimerizes with the other members of the ErbB family to produce greater affinity signaling complexes. Because ErbB3 contains a faulty kinase domain, the kinase domain of ErbB2 is responsible for starting the tyrosine phosphorylation signal through the heterodimeric receptor. The ErbB3 cytoplasmic domain has a discrete three-amino-acid signal that is required for ErbB2 transactivation. This three-amino-acid signal has been discovered in ErbB1 and ErbB4 as well. It’s been discovered that phosphoinositide 3-kinase is involved in ErbB2 signaling. Beta-catenin and plakoglobin have been found to bind with ErbB2’s cytoplasmic domain.

About ERBB2 antibody 

There are more than 2000 ErbB2 antibodies in the market today with over  50 suppliers and manufacturers. ErbB2 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total ErbB2 protein. The antibody does not cross-react with related kinases. ErbB2 antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Tyr1222 of human ErbB2. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography. 

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