Home » Battery Packs with Lithium-Ion Batteries

Battery Packs with Lithium-Ion Batteries

by Victor

Battery technology today is so omnipresent that we cannot see them. They can be found in cars, digital cameras, drones, bulbs, mechanical tools, inverters, ships, trains, airplanes, windmills, and even satellites.

A battery is made up of three components: Anode, Cathode, and Electrolyte, which convert chemical energy into electrical energy.

The battery has evolved through many stages of chemical combinations and implementations over the years.

The journey began with the Voltaic Pile to the Daniell Cell, then from Lead Acid to Nickel Cadmium, further evolving to the Alkaline Battery, Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) and then finally to the Lithium-ion battery.

Various shapes and sizes are available according to the need, along with their possible power capacities.


Lithium-ion batteries are composed of graphite, oxygen, metal, and of course lithium, which are discharged and recharged in a cycle.

While producing energy, the lithium moves across the electrolyte to the positive cathode, and while charging, the ions move to the positive anode.

Over time, this cycle repeats and decreases the potency of the ions in providing the electric charge.

In comparison, lithium-ion batteries have 250Wh/kg (Watt-hours per kilogram) of energy, while NiMH batteries have 90Wh/kg.

This is a large difference for a small, portable and noiseless rechargeable battery.

Concern Parameters:

The following 10 parameters are involved in the development of a Lithium-ion battery pack: high specific energy, specific power, affordable cost, longer life, improved safety, wide temperature range, non-toxic, fast charging, lower self-discharge, and longer shelf life.

Li-ion batteries cost $3000 per kWh in the early stages, while lead-acid batteries cost $150 per kWh.

Over the years, however, because of the many advantages that Li-ion packs offer, being 150Wh/kg more than NiMH batteries, the price has dramatically fallen, now costing $150 to $240 per kWh. In the long run, Tesla wants to be able to sell lithium-ion batteries for its cars for $100 per kWh.


It is estimated that in 2005 there were a total of $4900 million in sales of lithium-ion batteries, but in 2015, it spiked to $15200 million, of which $4800 million was sales in the automotive sector alone.

The percentage of battery electric vehicles on the road is expected to increase from 0.3% today to 10% by 2020, and to 35% by 2035.

Compared to the US, China, Europe, and Japan have an even higher growth rate. Statistically, Li-ion batteries will consume 1900TWh by 2035, which is enough to power the US for 160 days.


Since we haven’t come up with anything more than lithium-ion batteries configured in parallel or series to deliver the desired voltage, power density, and capacity, there is still a lot to be done to develop battery technology.

It’s true that we have altered the composition and proportion of raw materials to enhance the capabilities, but there is still much work to be done on the battery technology.

We should be able to reach over 700Wh/kg instead of the 400Wh/kg we are at now.

Cobalt will be present in 75% of batteries by 2020, at least in some capacity, along with better anodes and improved electrolytes.

Lithium ion battery packs are expected to be cheaper and more efficient in the long run compared to current battery packs.

Moreover, Lithium Air technology is under cultivation, which will have 10 times the energy density of Li-ion batteries.

It is likely that lithium ion battery packs won’t end for at least the next half century, making it the fastest-growing area in technology.

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